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Welcome to the HyperCard FAQ - Part 4 of 4 - Addendum
FAQ Version 1.2.2 Tuesday, November 18, 1997

  FAQ Version History
  Foreward for Version 1.2

  Add your $.02 
  Copyright Info 
  Easy View and Setext 
  New in HyperCard FAQ 1.2.1
  New in HyperCard FAQ 1.2 
  New in HyperCard FAQ 1.1 
Version Addendum
  What are the versions of HyperCard since 2.2?
  What's new in version 2.3?
  What's new in version 2.3.1?
  What's new in version 2.3.2 and 2.3.3?
  What's new in version 2.3.5?
  How much does HyperCard 2.3.x cost?
  I have HyperCard 2.3, how can I get HyperCard 2.3.5?
  Is there a press release for HyperCard 2.3?
  What about HyperCard 3.0?
  When will HyperCard 3.0 be released?
  The "answer folder" command isn't working correctly in my standalone.
  I can't record with built-in sound recording in HyperCard on my new Mac.
  My card window won't increase beyond 512 X 342 pixels.
  I can't edit my scripts.
  There is no "Link To" button in the Button Info Dialog.
  What is the "65536" bug?
  Where did the Button Tasks button go?

  What is the Pickle virus?
  I don't have SAM or Virex. How can I stop Pickle?
  Is there any new information about the Merryxmas virus?
  How do I protect against the new Merryxmas virus mutations?
General Scripting
  What is the "HyperCard Quick Reference"?
  What happened to Heizer Software?
  How do I extract my original stack from a stand-alone?
  How can I get my HyperCard stack on the web?
  Who's Peter Fleck? 

FAQ Versions
  Interim Organic FAQ v.0.0.2 by Dave Lorand released in October, 1993
  Version .04 released in November, 1993
  Version 1.0 released in 1994
  Version 1.1 released in 1995
  Slight modifications 7/20/96
  AND NOW version 1.2, released on Monday, December 9, 1996
  It's been a long, strange trip.
  Version 1.2.1 released Monday, December 23, 1996
  Have a happy HyperCard holiday and script safely.
                   SEE THE FAQ ON THE WEB!
         [Please be patient for the current version.]

Foreward for Version 1.2 

  Apple is still alive and kicking and HyperCard seems to be making a
  comeback. Me, I've delved into Macromedia Director and learned some
  things about the DOS/WINDOWS world and my own conclusion is that
  there's still nothing in the scripting/authoring world like
  Long live Bill Atkinson.

  This may be the last version of the FAQ for HC 2.x.  Rumors of HC 3.0
  are hot and heavy with folks seeing it more often than Elvis and it
  hasn't been released yet (as of this writing).  My guess is Q2 of '97.
  The FAQ addendum contains what's known in the civilized world about
  3.0. Join the mailing list or news group to keep up with the latest
  rumors or go to MacWorld or the WWDC for a preview.

  Mine was not the only FAQ in HC history -- several of us got the FAQ
  idea about the same time and Dave Lorand got tired of waiting for my
  FAQ and released the Interim Organic FAQ.  (Dave continued to help
  with the FAQ thru 1996.)  I *think* Bruce Carter was also preparing a
  FAQ and kindly sent me his archive. Seeing I didn't really understand
  the amount of work involved, everyone deferred to me.  I thought it
  would be easy.  It's not which is why this is the first big update in
  quite a while.
  I want to thank hypercarders everywhere for all of the support and
  help I've received in the process of putting this document together.

  Peter Fleck, Keeper of the HyperCard FAQ
  December 9, 1996


  A Listing of Frequently Asked Questions and Information about the
  HyperCard Programming Environment

  Part 1 is general information and a full table of contents. Part 2 is
  meant as an introduction to the HyperCard environment. Part 3 covers
  scripting. Part 4 is an addendum that covers multiple topics of more
  recent interest than the previous FAQ files.  I'm hoping to do more
  frequent updatings within the addendum.

  Current versions of the FAQ are available for anonymous ftp from


  [You'll also find links to downloading at:

  The purpose of The HyperCard FAQ is to provide information and answer
  basic questions about HyperCard; its scripting language, HyperTalk;
  and various resources and products relating to HyperCard.

  When I first released the FAQ, Apple was still bundling the "real"
  HyperCard application with new Macs, sans documentation. One of my
  goals with the FAQ was to provide some very basic documentation for
  those curious about following the HyperCard path.

  Today, Apple only includes the HyperCard Player; to script and author,
  you have to buy HyperCard and you get all the manuals.  You should
  also consider some third-party books -- check the Books section of
  this FAQ for more info.

  The HyperCard FAQ is not meant to replace the Apple manuals, or the
  excellent third party books available.

  Editorial comments are in brackets ([]). Script commands and internet
  addresses in text appear between <> (except where I forgot to use
  these conventions).

Add your $.02

  Comments, suggestions, ideas, typo lists, are welcome 
  and appreciated. [I know I didn't proof this version as well as 
  I should have.]
  I can be reached via the internet at:

Copyright Info

  This document may be copied and redistributed on the
  understanding that NO resale of this information is undertaken
  by any recipient. This means non-profit, non-commercial
  publications (user group newsletters, for example) can reprint
  the FAQ but that it cannot be used in a book or commercial
  magazine.  Individual authors who contributed to the FAQ still
  own the copyright on their material.

  Any reproduction of the information should be complete and
  entire and provide reference to the original source (i.e. the
  HYPERCARD FAQ) and the editor (Peter Fleck), and individual
  authors where directly mentioned in the text.  The editor would
  like to be informed of any reprints and would very much
  appreciate a copy of the publication.

  The editor takes no responsibility for any errors, omissions or
  misunderstandings, however induced!

Easy View and Setext

  [I have a 7500 with System 7.5.5 and Easy View still works with 
  no problems. 12/9/96]

  This document is formatted as setext. You can use the Easy View 
  structured text reader to browse the FAQ. Easy View divides the FAQ 
  into chapters and heads and has search capabilities. 
  Easy View is available for anonymous ftp 
  from <mac.archive.umich.edu> in directory /mac/util/text. 
  [Info from the Easy View Read Me]
  Easy View is an application for intelligent browsing of collections 
  of structured text files, large or small. It allows very fast access 
  by recognizing the internal structure. All of the following text 
  formats can be viewed using Easy View: 
    - setext, including TidBITS and similar publications 
    - Info-Mac, c.s.m.p, or similar digests
    - Mail collections: Internet, Navigator, Notebook, etc.
    - Text with "simple" format
    - Dictionaries
    - Plain text
  Written by M. Akif Eyler, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara, Turkey.
  e-mail: eyler@trbilun.bitnet          eyler@bcc.bilkent.edu.tr
    More information can be obtained from the designer Ian Feldman   
    <setext-list@random.se>, or by sending "setext" alone
    on the subject line, no quotes, to <fileserver@tidbits.com>

New in HyperCard FAQ 1.2.2

  Updated "HyperCard Info Resources" (Part 2) to reflect the new 
  mailing list. Also some other minor updating of that section.
  Added some new info from Paul Foraker about the resizing windows.
  (Part 4).
  Corrected some errors.

New in HyperCard FAQ 1.2.1

  Jacque Gay reported some 8-bit characters in the text which caused
  her problems when uploading the FAQ files to AOL.  I think I've
  removed them via the Convert to ASCII... extension in BBEdit.

  Added "Where did the Button Tasks button go?" in part 4, Bugs

  Added "How do I extract my original stack from a stand-alone?" in
  part 4, Misc. section.

  Added "How can I get my HyperCard stack on the web?" in part 4,
  Misc. section.

  Added Mark Gregory's HyperCard tutorial site:
  <http://www.chepd.mq.edu.au/boomerang/teachhc/> in part 2, The
  Basics, "HyperCard Info Resources".

  Added short blurb about my home page in the Introduction section.

  Added Jacque Gay's name to the people I thank in Acknowledgements.

  Added Peter Brigham's name to the people I thank in Acknowledgements
  for his "FAQ to stack" work.

  Updated info on Michael Swaine's HyperPub publication in part 2, The
  Basics, "HyperCard Info Resources". There is a web site: 

New in HyperCard FAQ 1.2

  Added a new Part 1 which contains a full table of contents and general

  Part 4, The Addendum is all new.

  Updated URLs and put them in standard format.

  Added some URLs for downloading x-things.

  Updated titles and ISBNs for Winkler's, Kamins's, & DeVoto's _The
  Book_ and Goodman's Complete Handbook.

  New introductory section.

  Updated "Are there programs like HyperCard for ...?" with new information
  about Oracle Media Objects, MetaCard, and HyperCard IIGS

  Added info about TrueColor and OpenStack.

  Did some other stuff I can't remember.

New in HyperCard FAQ 1.1 (1995)

  What's the background domain? What's the card domain?
  How many stacks can I have open at once?
  Will my HC 2.2 stack work with earlier versions of HC?
  My color standalone has no color!
  Can I add color to my stacks? [Moved from HC Scripting FAQ]
  My visual effect commands don't work. [Moved from HC Scripting FAQ]
  HyperCard doesn't work on my PowerMac.
  What is the merryxmas virus?
  What is the HC virus?
  Reporting bugs and suggesting improvements.

  Minor changes, additions, or updates were made to the 
  following FAQs
  Where Can I purchase HyperCard?
  HyperCard Info Resources
  Where can I find HyperCard stacks? (ftp info)
  What is the HyperCard Player?
  What is AppleScript?
  What is Home?
  Books on HyperCard
  Book Reviews
  HyperCard Products and Related Applications

Version Addendum

What are the versions of HyperCard since 2.2?


What's new in version 2.3?

  Support for PowerPC Macs including the ability to generate standalone
  applications which are optimized for PowerPC Macs.

  New Button Tasks which allow you to generate HyperTalk scripts without

  Enhancements to the Color Tools including a new color painting

  Text-to-Speech capabilities. (only for Macintoshes with 68040 or
  better microprocessors)

  New HyperTalk: speak, the speech, stop speech, the voices, the
  soundChannel, stop sound, the clipboard.

  Enhancements to many current HyperTalk commands.

What's new in version 2.3.1?

  The following is from the READ ME file that comes with the 2.3.1

  Name: Color Tools 2.3.1 Update

  Version:      2.3.1 Released:     June 23, 1995

  Description: This update corrects a crash that occurs when launching a
  stack that has been colored with Color Tools 2.3.  This update stack
  is not intended to be used to update HyperCard#172# stacks which have
  been made into Applications.

  The crash occurs when:

  1) A stack is created using Color Tools 2.3 on a Macintosh computer
  with a PowerPC microprocessor.

  2) Color Tools are opened from the Color menu item

  3) The color resources ARE installed into the new stack.

  4) The stack is then launched on a different Macintosh computer which
  has a PowerPC microprocessor.

  The bug does not occur if the stack is moved to a different Macintosh
  computer which has a 680x0 microprocessor.

  This update stack serves two purposes. First it can be used to update
  the Color Tools 2.3 stack (delivered with HyperCard 2.3). A new stack
  created with the updated Color Tools 2.3 stack will no longer crash
  when run on a Macintosh computer with a PowerPC microprocessor
  different than the one on which it was created. Secondly, this update
  stack can be used to upgrade stacks which previously have had the
  Color Tools 2.3 resources installed into them. Likewise, these stacks
  will no longer crash when run on a Macintosh computer with a PowerPC
  microprocessor different than the one on which they were created.
What's new in version 2.3.2 and 2.3.3?

  According to Jon Pugh, 2.3.1 and 2.3.3 are supposed to be identical. 
  2.3.2 attempted to fix an additional Color Tools problem, apparently
  with WorldScript, but was not successful at doing so, so they rolled
  the code back and the number forward.

What's new in version 2.3.5?

  From Apple's "HyperCard 2.3.5 Update Read Me":

  This program updates your copy of HyperCard 2.3 and the
  StackToApp stack translator to version 2.3.5 and installs
  updated versions of four HyperCard stacks. From time to time,
  Apple produces maintenance releases of software to add minor
  functionality, fix defects or respond to customer requests.
  Our goal with this updater is to make it as convenient as
  possible for you to obtain the enhanced functionality in
  HyperCard 2.3.5.
  Changes in HyperCard

  - HyperCard's performance on machines with large numbers of fonts
  installed has been vastly improved, particularly on Macintosh
  computers with PowerPC microprocessors.

  - A problem that caused the text of fields to be printed at the
  resolution of the screen instead of the resolution of the printer has
  been fixed.

  - Problems that caused selections within list fields to be displayed
  incorrectly have been fixed.

  - The "Link To" button in the Button Info dialog once again appears on
  all systems.

  Changes in StackToApp

  - A problem that caused standalones to be created with a corrupted
  version of the AddColor external has been fixed.

  Changes in the Color Tools Stack

  - A problem was fixed that prevented stacks colorized with Color Tools
  2.3 on a Macintosh computer with a PowerPC microprocessor from being
  used on a different Macintosh computer with a PowerPC microprocessor.

  - The Color Tools now work more reliably on Macintosh systems that
  have the Japanese Language Kit or the Chinese Language Kit installed.

  - The "Redraw Screen" command now works properly with stacks that have
  been colorized with other versions of the Color Tools.

  - The "Compact Color Database" command now works properly with
  colorized cards and backgrounds whose IDs are greater than 32767.

  Changes in the Audio Help Stack

  The following changes were made to the Audio Palette to make it work
  properly on newer Macintosh models, including the Power Macintosh
  7200, 7500, 8500, and 9500.

  - The Audio Palette now records at the following qualities: Good (22
  kHz, 6-to-1 compression), Better (22 kHz, 3-to-1 compression), and
  Best (22 kHz, no compression). This is a change from older versions of
  the Audio Palette, which recorded at Good and Best qualities and had a
  different idea of Good quality (11 kHz, no compression).

  - There is now a one-to-one correspondence between compression and
  quality settings. "No compression" is synonymous with "Best quality,"
  "3-to-1 compression" with "Better quality," and "6-to-1 compression"
  with "Good quality."

  - You can still open and edit sounds recorded with the old Audio
  Palette at its "Good" quality. When you do this, the new Audio Palette
  displays the quality as "Other".

  - From a script, you can still set the "speed" property of the Audio
  Palette to "11k". This will allow you to use the old "Good" quality.
  When you do this, the new Audio Palette displays the quality as

  - The Audio Palette has a new property, "quality". From a script, you
  can set this property to "Good", "Better", or "Best".

  - The documentation in the Audio Help stack has been updated to
  reflect the changes in the Audio Palette.

  Changes in the Power Tools Stack

  - The Super Grouper tool now works more reliably with a wider range of

  - Starting with HyperCard 2.3, the option that allows the Picture XCMD
  to display a picture from the clipboard requires that the word
  "clipboard" be quoted, as follows:

  Picture "From The Clipboard","clipboard"

  The documentation in the Power Tools stack has been updated to reflect
  this change.

  Changes in the Readymade Buttons Stack

  - The "Show Clipboard Picture" button on the card that demonstrates
  how to hide and show pictures now works properly.

  Copyright 1996, Apple Computer, Inc.

How much does HyperCard 2.3.x cost?


  Upgrades from purchased versions of 2.2 are $39.
  [Prices are for December, 1996.]
I have HyperCard 2.3, how can I get HyperCard 2.3.5?

  You can download the update files from one of these sites:


  These updaters will not work on HyperCard 2.2. 
  If you don't have Internet access try 800-SOS-APPL the the APDA at
Is there a press release for HyperCard 2.3?

CUPERTINO, California--May 1, 1995

Apple Introduces New Version of HyperCard with Multimedia Enhancements and
Power Macintosh Support


  Apple Computer, Inc. today introduced HyperCard 2.3, a new version of
  the company's popular software development tool that enables people to
  easily organize text, graphics, sound and video into
  stacks of electronic cards for custom software solutions. 
  HyperCard 2.3's performance improvements, ease-of-use enhancements,
  and new color and multimedia capabilities further extend the product's
  value to a wide array of users, including commercial and in-house
  developers, software consultants, educators and multimedia authors.


  With the release of HyperCard 2.3, Apple is strengthening HyperCard as
  a powerful, easy-to-use, versatile development tool. Apple is
  committed to HyperCard as a strategic development platform, said
  Ike Nassi, vice president, Apple System Software Technology.
  Version 2.3 provides our customers with the capabilities they
  require to further reduce development time and enrich the user

  When developing and deploying stacks, HyperCard 2.3 users can choose
  the new version accelerated for Power Macintosh computers, or the same
  version optimized for Apple's traditional Motorola 680x0-based
  machines. Both versions are included in every HyperCard product sold
  through retail channels. Additionally, users may save their stacks as
  stand-alone applications for Power Macintosh systems, 680x0 systems,
  or both.

  Important new HyperCard features include automated Button Tasks,
  24-bit color paint tools, text-to-speech capabilities and special
  multimedia software and utilities:

Button Tasks

  Automated button tasks enable those with little or no scripting
  experience to easily integrate all elements of a HyperCard stack. By
  simply clicking on buttons, developers can quickly create stacks that
  help users navigate through cards, view QuickTime movies, listen to
  audio information, launch other applications and share data with those
  applications while working with a HyperCard stack. Apple provides six
  primary button tasks with HyperCard 2.3, however, many third parties
  may find it beneficial to create additional button tasks for specific
  vertical-market needs. To encourage third-party development, Apple is
  providing button task application program interface instructions at
  the 1995 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference (May 8-12, in San

Color Paint Tools

  Users can rely on HyperCard 2.3's 24-bit color painting tools to add a
  new level of visual interest to their stacks.  With these new painting
  tools, users can create their own color graphics or import PICT
  graphical image files into HyperCard, edit them, and apply a variety
  of special effects.

Text-to-Speech Capabilities

  HyperCard 2.3 also includes text-to-speech capabilities that support
  Apple PlainTalk software. The text-to-speech feature allows any Apple
  Macintosh computer to read aloud specific text from a HyperCard stack.
  This capability adds a new dimension to HyperCard's usefulness as a
  learning tool in education and home learning environments.  For
  example, foreign language students can immediately reinforce the
  proper pronunciation of words as they are displayed in a digital

Multimedia Software

  Bundled with an array of multimedia products from Motion Works Inc.,
  HyperCard 2.3 delivers a total software value of U.S. $500. The bundle
  includes AddMotion II, a path-based animation program and MultiMedia
  Utilities, a collection of six utilities for QuickTime editing and

  Since its introduction in 1987, HyperCard has grown in popularity
  among Macintosh users because no programming experience is required to
  create custom software.  HyperCard's unique card-and-stack metaphor
  makes it ideal for a wide range of custom applications, not just
  multimedia.  Commercial developers, consultants, in-house programmers,
  and educators alike use HyperCard to organize and display all types of
  information (text, graphics, and sound).  HyperCard provides the
  flexibility to create such diverse applications as courseware and
  computer-based training materials, training simulations, game titles,
  graphical interfaces for database search and retrieval, interactive
  multimedia presentations and information kiosks.

  Although HyperCard is widely recognized among programming novices for
  its ease of use, it also provides professional developers with a
  robust prototyping and development environment. HyperCard adds a suite
  of powerful scripting, editing and debugging tools, the most notable
  of which is AppleScript. This system-level scripting language enables
  developers to use HyperCard as an engine from which to launch, run and
  share data with other scriptable applications such as Microsoft Word,
  Microsoft Excel, FileMaker Pro and WordPerfect.

Pricing and Availability

  Expected to be available this month from Apple authorized resellers in
  the U.S., and through the Apple Developer Tools Catalog, HyperCard 2.3
  has a suggested retail price of U.S. $129.00. HyperCard 2.2 customers
  may upgrade to HyperCard 2.3 for $39.00 by ordering through the Apple
  Developer Tools Catalog.  The Apple Developer Tools Catalog is
  available by telephone in the U.S. at (800) 282-2732; in Canada at
  (800) 637-0029; or internationally at (716) 871-6555. To locate a
  nearby Apple reseller, customers may call the Apple Reseller Referral
  Line at (800) 538-9696.

System Requirements 

  The minimum system configuration for HyperCard 2.3 is an Apple
  Macintosh or Mac compatible computer with a 68020 processor, Version
  6.0.5 of the Mac OS, and 2 MB of memory.  Some new features of
  HyperCard 2.3 require more recent processors, additional memory and/or
  more recent system software.

  Apple Computer, Inc., a recognized pioneer and innovator in the
  information industry, creates powerful solutions based on easy to use
  personal computers, servers, peripherals, software, online services,
  and personal digital assistants.  Headquartered in Cupertino,
  California, Apple (NASDAQ:AAPL) develops, manufactures, licenses and
  markets products, technologies and services for the business,
  education, consumer, scientific & engineering and government
  markets in over 140 countries.

  (C) 1995 Apple Computer, Inc. Apple, the Apple logo, HyperCard,
  Macintosh and QuickTime are registered trademarks of Apple Computer,
  Inc.  AppleScript and Power Macintosh are trademarks of Apple
  Computer, Inc. All other companies may be trademarks of their
  respective holdings and are hereby recognized.
What about HyperCard 3.0?

  The HyperCard team (led by Kevin Calhoun) is alive and well at Apple
  and preparing the next major release of the program which (IMHO) will
  be as revolutionary as the introduction of HyperCard way back in 1987.

  Here are some HC 3.0 features:

      * Cross-platform 
      * Runs on the web 
      * Supports Internet protocols 
      * Built-in color support 
      * Total rewrite (new code base) 
      * Exemplar support for Apple's QuickTime media layer (QTML) 
      * Some long-awaited new features 
  HC 3.0 was previewed at the 1996 World Wide Developer's Conference. 
  Here is Jon Pugh's report:

    So, it's finally announced.  Hypercard 3.0 is official and
    able to run demos.  Kevin Calhoun showed it off at the WWDC
    today in a session titled, Hypercard 3.0, the Phoenix Rises. 
    He apologized for the title and pointed out that the mythical
    phoenix unfortunately also dies every 7,000 years. If it could
    only last that long.  ;)
    The key to the future of Hypercard is QuickTime 3.0.  The QT
    folks were looking at adding a control language to QuickTime
    for what is now titled QTML (QuickTime Media Layer) and
    decided that Hypertalk was just what they wanted, so they are
    integrating that into QT, and consequently redoing Hypercard
    on top of this interactive QT.
    What this means is that every Hypercard stack is a movie and
    can be played by ANY existing movie player, including (and
    demoed) MoviePlayer, WordPerfect, Netscape and OpenDoc's movie
    It also means that full integrated color is finally here with
    complete painting tools and full importing, as well as cross
    platform playback, since players already exist for all three
    versions of Windows.
    In addition, since they are making new media handlers, they
    are adding ones which can read media off the net, which makes
    it really easy to run your stacks in Netscape or CyberDog over
    the net since they start working the moment you download the
    first frame and they can reference content on multiple
    servers.  In addition, you can embed any QT content anywhere
    in Hypercard, so you can have QTVR, regular movies and sounds
    integrated right into your stacks.
    Basically, this puts Hypercard more firmly into the multimedia
    authoring realm, in addition to making it even easier to make
    insanely cool interactive movies.
    There's lots more, but the gist is that they are talking about
    delivering QT 3 and HC 3 in the spring of 97, and that's
    supposed to be heavily padded so that it could be a bit
    I can't wait.
  Questions?  A report from Kevin Calhoun may answer some of them:
    In response to requests for information coming our way in the
    wake of Apple's World Wide Developer Conference and our early
    preview of HyperCard 3.0, here are some basic answers from the
    HyperCard team.  It's premature for us to talk about specific
    feature sets or ship dates, but we're ready to talk about the
    technology we're working with and our intentions for future
    1.  How can users benefit from a reimplementation of HyperCard
    upon the QuickTime Media Layer (QTML)?
    A partial list:
      1) integrated support for full color in all bit depths;
      2) playability on the multiple platforms supported by QTML and in
         all applications in which QuickTime movies currently can be
      3) extensibility via open QuickTime APIs;
      4) integration of all media types supported by QTML, including
         text, video, audio, music, VR, 3D, and MPEG, and 5) ease of
         use in combination with other QuickTime-based tools.
    HyperCard's basic value is in allowing people to combine
    content that their computers can display and actions that
    their computer can perform in ways that are useful or
    meaningful to them.  Because QuickTime is a rich architecture,
    a reimplementation of HyperCard upon the QuickTime Media Layer
    would broaden the scope of both the types of content and the
    kinds of actions that people can combine within HyperCard
    stacks.  Because QuickTime is an open architecture,
    HyperCard's scope could be broadened even further without
    additional changes to HyperCard itself.
    2.  How would the basic operation of HyperCard stacks have to
    change if they are stored within QuickTime movie files?  Would
    they lose any of their interactivity?
    Stacks would be stored differently, using QuickTime-defined
    formats for their structure and content, but their basic
    behaviors would remain the same.  Stacks would still contain
    cards and backgrounds, they would continue to update
    themselves dynamically as changes are made, and users would
    operate them as they do now.  In other words, the scope of
    what a QuickTime movie can be would be broadened to encompass
    the behavior of stackware.
    Even now, QuickTime movies are not restricted to linear
    playback.  For examples of QuickTime movies with interactive
    behaviors, take a look at the QuickTime VR samples at:
    3.  Would existing stacks still work?
    Yes.  It's possible to translate from the file formats of
    HyperCard 1.x and 2.x to QuickTime-based formats, retaining
    the content and behavior of the original stacks.  Our goal for
    all future versions of HyperCard is to support a high degree
    of forward compatibility.
    4.  What would become of HyperTalk?
    HyperTalk would remain the primary scripting language for most
    HyperCard users, designed and implemented specifically to
    support the features and behavior of HyperCard stacks.  The
    HyperTalk language would be enhanced in parallel with the
    reimplementation of HyperCard.
    HyperCard would remain open to the use of other languages as
    well, such as AppleScript, UserTalk, and Java.  Of course,
    stacks that use other languages will require appropriate
    support for them on each platform on which they're intended to
    5.  Would HyperCard continue to support XCMDs and XFCNs?
    We would continue to support XCMDs and XFCNs on Macintosh
    only.  In addition, we would adopt extensibility options
    defined by QuickTime that are standard across multiple
    6.  Where can I find out more about QuickTime?
    On the World Wide Web, you can find Apple's QuickTime pages
    There are several books currently in print that cover the uses
    of QuickTime for digital video.  Most of them focus
    exclusively on that subject; two that cover that subject well
    and also discuss QuickTime as a broader multimedia
    architecture are:

    QuickTime: The Official Guide For Macintosh Users   ISBN 1568301294
    Mastering The World Of QuickTime                    ISBN 0679742913

    For programmers who want the details of QuickTime's architecture, 
    there's always:

    Inside Macintosh: QuickTime                         ISBN 0201622017 
    Inside Macintosh: QuickTime Components              ISBN 0201622025
When will HyperCard 3.0 be released?

  No release date has been announced.  It *may* go to beta in 1996 and
  could be released by the Spring of 1997 (Jon Pugh mentions this in his
  report) but it could be later.  (Notice that Kevin Calhoun will not
  commit to a date in his report.


The "answer folder" command isn't working correctly in my standalone

  There is a bug with the "answer folder" command when used in a
  standalone created with HyperCard.  The dialog box that appears has a
  button at the bottom for selecting a folder and the button should have
  the name of the folder but it doesn't.  The button is there but no
  identifying text for the folder.
  Open your application with ResEdit and open STR# resource 129,
  "Dialog strings."  Scroll down to string #63 -- it will be empty. 
  Enter the characters

  Select "^0"

  [That's a shift-6 before the zero.  Save your changes.  It should work
  Thanks to Kevin Calhoun (jkc@apple.com)
  "Answer Folder" was introduced with version 2.3.  This bug is fixed 
  in version 2.3.5.

I can't record with built-in sound recording in HyperCard on my new Mac.

  This is a known problem with older versions of the Audio Help stack
  and the newer Macs.

  Upgrade your Audio Stack to version 2.3.5.  See the upgrade URLs

My card window won't increase beyond 512 X 342 pixels

  A small locked block in the heap will fragment the heap so that
  Hypercard cannot allocate a new sufficiently large buffer, despite
  there being enough memory.  Quitting and restarting Hypercard is the
  only way to clear up the heap.

  According to Kevin Calhoun, the problem is normally attributable to a
  bug in standard file (the open and save dialogs) which left a small
  locked block in the middle of Hypercard's heap.  In theory, if you use
  a script to go to a stack first thing (i.e. don't choose a stack from
  the open dialog), you shouldn't see this problem.  It can also be
  caused by an XCMD or some other "naughtyThing" that locks a portion of
  memory close to the allocated memory.

  Try turning off Macintosh Easy Open, either by removing it
  from the System Folder or using Extensions Manager.

  [Posted by Jon Pugh]
  From Paul Foraker <paul@whitefeather.com>:

  This problem can also be caused by Color QuickDraw locking a
  block in the heap, such that merely opening a colorized
  stack can cause the bug.

  There's another work-around for this problem. If possible,
  have the first stack you open be sized to fit your screen.
  This causes HyperCard to allocate enough contiguous memory
  to open a card window of that size. >From then on in that
  session, you should be able to open any other card window.

I can't edit my scripts

  1. You've opened the stack in the HyperCard Player instead of the

  2. It's a 1.2.x stack and needs to be converted to the 2.x version.
  (File Menu, Convert Stack -- MAKE SURE TO MAKE A BACKUP COPY!)

  3. You're user level is less than 5.  You can set this from the last
  card of your home stack. (See also "What is the user level?" and "I
  only have two (or three) user level choices available.")

  4. You've used quotation marks in the name of your stack which locks
  the script editor.  Change the name.

There is no "Link To" button in the Button Info Dialog

  The "Link To" button disappeared when Button Tasks were introduced in
  HyperCard 2.3.  There is a Destination task which is almost identical.

  You can get the "Link To" button back by holding down the Option key
  when you choose "Button Info."

  Or you can upgrade to 2.3.5 where the "Link To" button makes a
  surprise return.

What is the "65536" bug?

  If you have  exactly 65,536 characters in a container (variable or
  field) and test the container for empty, HyperCard will return TRUE. 
  If you ask for the "number of characters", it will return 65,536.
Where did the Button Tasks button go?

  There's a known problem with HyperCard 2.3 that prevents Button Tasks
  from appearing on Macintoshes with PowerPC microprocessors if the
  AppleScriptLib file is not present.  If this is the case in your
  lab, installing AppleScript on each of the machines should make the
  problem go away.  You don't need the full AppleScript implementation
  for Button Tasks to work; if you want, you can remove all of it
  except for AppleScriptLib.

  [answer posted by Kevin Calhoun]

Viral Update

What is the Pickle virus?


  New Virus Targets HyperCard Stacks

  by Mark Anbinder, News Editor

  Antiviral utility developers today announced the recent discovery of
  a virus that infects HyperCard stacks. The "HC-9507" virus infects
  HyperCard's Home stack when an infected stack is executed, and from
  there spreads to other running stacks and randomly-chosen stacks on
  the startup disk. Depending on the day of the week and the time, the
  virus can cause odd system behavior when an infected HyperCard stack
  is running. For example, the screen may fade in and out, the word
  "pickle" may be inserted into your text, or the system may
  unexpectedly shut down or lock up.

  Symantec and Datawatch have released updates to their SAM and Virex
  tools, respectively, which find and remove HC-9507 infections in
  HyperCard stacks. Check your documentation for instructions on
  obtaining the updates. Central Point Anti-Virus, Disinfectant, and
  VirusDetective do not attempt to deal with HyperCard viruses, so no
  updates are being released for these tools. Mac users who do not use
  HyperCard need not worry about this virus; only executing an
  infected HyperCard stack will spread the virus.

  Information from: Gene Spafford

I don't have SAM or Virex. How can I stop Pickle?

  [The following was posted to the HyperCard Discussion List by Jacque
  Gay <hyperact@winternet.com>]

  The new virus is not a merryXmas clone. It is called "Pickle" and is
  intentionally destructive. It uses re-named Rinaldi XFCNs and a TEXT
  resource to store its scripts and move them from stack to stack. It
  infects your Home stack, but also randomly infects stacks on your hard
  drive whether they are open or not. Based on the date and time, it
  will either type "pickle" into the message box, fade and unfade the
  screen (using one of its transferred XCMDs), or freeze up and crash
  your Mac system-wide by calling a code fragment stored as an XCMD with
  no XCMD parameter block interface.

  The following line should be installed in your Home stack script. It
  will stop the virus from propagating and keep it confined to the host
  stack. With this innoculation, your Home stack and other stacks will
  not become infected.

  Place the following line into your Home stack script:

    -- if the script of home contains

  The freeware virus utility Disinfectant does not normally work with
  HyperCard viruses, but since this virus is resource-based, I have
  contacted John Norstad to see if he will consider supporting detection
  in Disinfectant. I will let the list know what his response is.
  [Ed. Note: John Norstad does not plan to support Pickle detection.]

  Above all, don't worry too much about it. I first heard reports of
  this virus over a year ago, but didn't see a copy until two months ago
  when I was sent a stack to examine. This means that you aren't in any
  more danger now than you were a year ago. Install the innoculation and
  all will be well.
Is there any new information about the Merryxmas virus?

  HyperCard hackers (probably teens playing jokes) have created
  variations that can no longer be blocked with the old inoculation

    --on openBackground --merryxmas
    --on closeBackground --merryxmas
    --on idle --merryxmas

How do I protect against the new Merryxmas virus mutations?

  According to the abstract, Merryxmas Vaccine 3.0 will take care of the 

  In addition, Jacque Gay has an inoculation script that blocks all
  known forms of merryxmas. The script only works with HyperCard 2.3 and

  NOTE: Replace [CONT] with the option-L continue character.    

  on set -- virus block
    if param(1) = "script" and param(3) contains "home" then
      answer "Another stack is attempting to alter the" [CONT]
      && "script of the Home stack." [CONT]
      && "Allow alteration?" with "Allow" or "Don't Allow"
      if it = "allow" then pass set
        put "Home stack script has not been altered." [CONT]
        && "Currently running handler has been aborted." into prompt
        if the userlevel = 5 then put [CONT]
        " Edit script of current stack?" after prompt
        if the userlevel < 5 then answer prompt
        else answer prompt with "Cancel" or "Edit"
        if it = "cancel" then exit to HyperCard
        edit script of this stack -- allows removal of virus code
        exit to HyperCard 
        -- prevent virus handler from continuing if user doesn't remove it
      end if
    else pass set
  end set

General Scripting

What is the "HyperCard Quick Reference"?

  This stack provides syntax and short descriptions for HyperCard 2.3
  commands, functions, and properties. It's cross-referenced to Apple's
  HyperTalk Reference stack. Comes with a handler for your home stack
  that gives you instant access from anywhere in HyperCard.

  Highly recommended for beginners to advanced hackers.

  Available at:



What happened to Heizer Software?

  Heizer Software was purchased by Royal Software in 1996. Royal is
  continuuing and expanding Heizer's HyperCard line.


How do I extract my original stack from a stand-alone?

  [Answer supplied by Richard Fox <Richard_Fox@muwayf.unimelb.edu.au>]


  1) ResEdit is very useful and powerful - work on a copy of your
  standalone so you can go back and have several goes at it.

  2) As everyones standalone is going to be a different application,
  there may be different resources included in the standalone - this
  is just what works for me. If you know of a tip I don't please, post

  3) Use recovered stacks with a degree of caution - copy new code
  back into a previous version if you can.

  How to do it:

  1) Open a copy of your standalone with ResEdit.

  2) Select "Get Info for this File" from the "File" menu

  3) Enter "STAK" into the file type box and "WILD" into the file
  creator box. (Make a note of the creator type first, you may need to
  know this later.)

  4) Quit ResEdit, confirming that you want to save the changes.

  The standalone will now appear as a normal HC stack, and can be
  opened as usual. (Someone said that an error appears, I have not
  seen this). This is all you need if you just want to recover code.
  However, there are still HC resources in the stack, which are copied
  from HC when you make your standalone. This tends to make the stack
  unstable (I don't know why, but it seems to be the case), so if you
  want to use the converted stack you need to remove the extra

  The resources you need to delete can be determined by opening a
  standalone and a stack version with ResEdit and comparing the
  resource forks. (An older stack version should be OK, the only thing
  that might differ is anything you have added, e.g. externals, icons,

  If you don't have an original stack to compare with, the following
  may work...

  Make another copy of the stack and open the copy with ResEdit, and
  delete the following resource types: (Once again, this is based on
  what is in my HC standalone - I'm using HC 2.3 on a PowerMac, Sys
  7.5 - it will be different with other HC versions, system software).
  And if you have added  any of these resource types yourself (e.g.
  dialogs) make sure you do not delete those!

    aete    BNDL    CODE
    CURS    dctb    DITL
    DLOG    finf    FOND
    FREF    HCRZ    hdlg
    hmnu    hovr    hwin
    MENU    MLCB    mstr
    NFNT    OPER    PLTE
    PRST    scsz    SICN
    SIZE    spce    STR
    STR#    vers    WDAT
    WTIM    WTLK

  There may be another resource with the same name as your custom File
  Creator type (the name that you replaced with "WILD" initially in
  ResEdit). Delete this resource also.

  Close ResEdit and save changes.

  Good Luck!

How can I get my HyperCard stack on the web?

  [Answer supplied by Todd Richmond <trichmon@jsd.claremont.edu>]


  Use HyperGasp if you:
    have a bunch of stacks that you would like to turn 
    into static pages
    don't need information passed from client to server
    would like a pretty cool development environment

  Use LiveCard if you:

    have a bunch of stack that you would like to turn 
    into static pages
    need information passed from client to server
    don't want people viewing your stack to need a plug-in
    need complete browser platform independence
    rely on externals for functionality in your stack
    want to easily implement web-databases and ordering networks

  Use SuperCard/Roadster if you:

    need your stack to behave just like it does on the desktop
    want all of your transitions and highlights to work
    have a lot of QuickTime and other media
    need to transfer information via FORMS protocols

  You will probably end up using all three, since each has their 
  own strengths and weaknesses.

  You have three main options, presented here roughly in increasing
  order of complexity:

  1. Convert your stack to HTML code.

  2. Serve your stack via a Macintosh-based web server using Royal
  Software's LiveCard.

  3. Convert your stack to a SuperCard project, which can be served on
  any platform of server, and viewed within a web page by browsers
  using the Roadster plug in.

  Here are a few more details on these options, along with the pros
  and cons of each.

  1. Convert your stack to HTML code. There may be more than one way
  to do this, but perhaps the easiest is to use HyperGasp from Caliban
  Mindware (http://www.calibanmw.com). HyperGasp is an alternative
  HyperCard development environment that offers a great deal of
  flexibility while eliminating most scripting. One interesting
  addition to version 3.0 of HyperGasp is the ability to export as
  HTML code. You can take any HC stack that has HyperGasp implemented,
  and export the stack as HTML code. Each card becomes a page, and
  links are generally maintained, as well as graphics. Note that no
  matter how good any HTML export routine is, you will probably still
  need to go in a fine-tine the resulting page (for those of you that
  use Word 6 or WordPerfect 3.5 export functions, as well as Adobe
  PageMill and Claris HomePage, you know what I mean). The bottom line
  is, as of the beginning of 1997, you still need to know some HTML
  code to create effective, bug-free pages. But HyperGasp does make
  the work much less painful. There are other web-related features in
  HyperGasp. You can find out details at their web site...I must admit
  that I have only dabbled with this aspect of HyperGasp (I make my
  pages the old fashioned way...with BBEdit...but that's another FAQ! 
  I can however recommend HyperGasp in general, especially for those
  that don't like to script).

  Pros: No special server or browser requirements, since generic HTML
  pages are created. HyperGasp has a lot of other cool features that
  make it worth the price of admission.

  Cons: Might need to fine tune the resulting HTML pages. Lose a great
  deal of interactivity, with no ability to get information back from
  browser page.

  2. Serve your HyperCard stack directly from a Macintosh Web server
  using LiveCard. LiveCard is simply amazing. If you are running a
  Macintosh server that supports cgi's, you can serve pretty much
  *any* HyperCard stack. This allows for database access via HTML
  forms pages...and you don't write a bit of HTML code! And you can
  use externals in your stack, allowing sophisticated communication
  between the web page that is served, and the stack that resides on
  the server.

  The following is taken from the LiveCard web site

  "LiveCard is a HyperCard add-on that enables remote users to browse
  and interact with HyperCard files, called "stacks", on your web
  server. Once installed, you'll be able to serve any HyperCard stack
  without extensive preparation - often with no preparation at all.
  This means you have all the advantages of HyperCard as part of your
  server solution, plus you can now serve those stacks to anyone on
  the Web, regardless of whether they're using a text- or
  graphics-based browser and regardless of their platform: Macintosh,
  Windows, UNIX, whatever."

  "LiveCard implements a CGI (Common Gateway Interface) between
  Macintosh servers, such as WebStar, and HyperCard. It makes the
  HyperCard interface available as high-resolution, compressed
  image-maps and HTML form elements, and transforms user gestures in a
  web browser to a format HyperCard can understand. LiveCard
  translates between HTML, HTTP, and HyperCard "on the fly," requiring
  little or no preparation of the HyperCard stack. LiveCard generates
  HTML dynamically - as stack content and functionality changes, these
  changes are reflected live in the remote users browser."

  What does this mean for you? Well, if you have access to a Macintosh
  web server running WebStar, MacHTTP, or similar server software that
  is cgi-aware, you can serve your stacks using LiveCard. LiveCard can
  generate an HTML forms page using the text fields on the card, an
  image map with stack graphics and buttons that responds to user
  clicks (although the buttons can't highlight), or a combination of
  the two. In addition, each generated page has a header and footer
  that can be set by scripting...and is HTML aware. This gives an
  incredible amount of flexibility.

  Note that LiveCard requires a Macintosh web server (not really a
  criticism... I love Mac servers...but you do have to have access to
  the server, and it *has* to be a Mac, since LiveCard is
  HyperCard-based). And to fully realize the potential of LiveCard,
  you need to learn some new commands...but there aren't too many, and
  they make sense. Plus, the examples provided are very helpful. At
  this point in time LiveCard has a limited ability to work with
  QuickTime...you can kludge your way around the limitations, but if
  your stack relies on a lot of QuickTime, you have to do some serious
  modifications. Rumor has it that future versions will have more
  QuickTime functionality. But for static graphics (color spoken
  here!), there are no modifications.

  Where LiveCard really shines is in the area of forms and databases.
  I created a stack to be used for a course I was teaching...very
  simple, with about 5 text fields for the students name, college,
  major, and a topic they were interested in. I then just dragged this
  stack into my server folder where LiveCard resides. That was it. I
  called up my page on a browser (remember, any browser, any
  platform), went to the LiveCard page, clicked on the link to my
  stack (automatically created by LiveCard), and there was a
  forms-based page with all of the fields...including their labels. I
  filled the page out and hit submit. Voila...the data appeared on the
  stack residing on my server. Now that is cool.

  Pros: Can serve your stack mostly without modification. Can use
  externals in the stack. Browser is *completely* platform independent
  since a plug-in is not required. Data can be easily transferred
  between web page and stack. Leverages existing HyperCard stacks,
  especially databases and order processing.

  Cons: Requires a Macintosh web server. Limited ability to work with
  QuickTime. Can be a tad slow. Lose button highlights and card

  3. Convert your stack to a SuperCard project. Allegiant (makers of
  SuperCard - http://www.allegiant.com) has recently released
  Roadster, which is a plug-in for Netscape navigator. Roadster is in
  public beta at this time (December '96), and is available for both
  Mac *AND* Windows 95. Can anyone say cross-platform? Before you get
  too excited, remember that you first have to convert your HyperCard
  stack into a SuperCard project. This is fairly painless
  however...unless you use externals. Externals present two problems
  for the SuperCard/Roadster approach...they don't always convert, and
  more importantly, at this time Roadster does not support *any*
  XCMD's. This is due to security concerns (you could do some nasty
  damage to a client computer...kinda like a java applet gone bad). A
  future intranet version of Roadster may show up that supports
  externals. Another potential problem is that Roadster only supports
  a single window. Now this might not be a problem for HyperCarders,
  since one window is the norm. But for dedicated SuperCard people
  that have grown used to multiple windows in projects, some tinkering
  has to be done.

  Since Roadster is a plug-in, you get some more good news and bad
  news. The bad news is that people have to download the plug-in and
  install it into their Netscape Plug-ins folder before they can view
  your project. The good news is the plug-in is free, and your project
  runs in the browser exactly as it does on the desktop...buttons
  highlight, transitions work, etc... And perhaps even more
  importantly, Roadster is available for Windows, so you can finally
  get your stack into the hands of the unfortunate Intel-laden masses.

  Pros: Project looks and runs just like on the desktop.
  Cross-platform. Ability to transfer information via forms commands.
  Ability to cache and preload graphics. Very good with external media
  such as QuickTime, audio, etc.

  Cons: Have to convert your stack. Browser requires plug-in. Lose all
  functionality of externals.



  Many are they who have contributed to this FAQ and I thank you all.  
  A few are mentioned in the articles. Special thanks to the  
  Dave Lorand <davel@earlham.edu>,ex FAQ Archivist. Dave posted the  
  FAQ to comp.sys.mac.hypercard and archived it at ftp.earlham.edu.  
  Dave has the distinction of posting the first HC FAQ. He beat  
  me by a few days.  
  Bruce Carter and John Pinto for some of the early data collection 
  that got the FAQ going. John has a text version of the FAQ on the web.
  Brian Molyneux for version data and info on Royal Software products.
  Editing and proofing: Bill Brown, Bruce Carter, Bill Karle  
  Book List: Originally compiled by Asif Taiyabi
  HyperCard 2.2 Review: Paul Foraker
  Peter Brigham for taking the FAQ and making it a stack and getting it
  done really fast after a text release.  The stack is available on 
  my AOL ftp site (or will be RSN). 
  The following list submitted answers or suggestions that 
  were helpful in the FAQ preparation. 
  Jay Cross
  Dave Blackburn
  Cory Doctorow
  Geoff Duncan
  Jacque Gay
  Mark G. Gillingham
  Christopher J.  Henrich
  Scott Raney
  Jeffrey D. Wurtz 

Who's Peter Fleck?

  He is president of PF Hyper, a Mac consulting company
  that uses HyperCard (and Director and SuperCard) for 
  making training programs and interactive multimedia for 
  both the Mac and Windows.  Check out his web page at

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